Central nervous system

Neurogenesis is refers to a controlled process that is regulated by growth factors in order to produce new cells. After processing, these new neurons migrate, differentiate and mature into newly incorporated and functioning cells. Researchers have found that new neurons could be generated from some parts of the human brain by use of the neural stem cells. Stem cells have the potential to rejuvenate and thus repairing the injured tissue in the central nervous system.

Some of recent therapies make use of stem cells and their potential for regeneration of damaged tissues, for instance, bone marrow transplantation, since they can grow and differentiate into a healthy tissue (Gage, 2008). The feedback loop between the stem cells and their progeny maintains the undifferentiated state of the various stem cells and also controls the number of the newly generated and differentiated cells.

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Additionally, the presence of transcriptional regulators enhances the phase of differentiation genes in the regulation of the undifferentiated condition. Neural stem cells can generate many types of cells found in the brain. Neurons are the main message carriers in the nervous system and they use long, thin projections called axoms that convey signals over extensive distances (Parker, 2005). Therefore, the discovery of regenerative capacity in the central nervous systems remains a guarantee that it is possible to repair damage from awful degenerative diseases.

However, before attempting any human trial in spinal injury using stem cells therapies to repair the damaged nervous system, it is of great significance to first conduct basic preclinical research to avoid impairment. Treatment of disorders like Parkinson’s can be done by developing replacement cells or activating the body’s own stem cells in vivo (NIH, 2009). Growth hormone may be used in those patients with advanced stages of the disease.

References

Gage, F. (2008). Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain. The Journal of Neuroscience. Vol. 22. Issue 3, p. 6132-613 National Institute of Health (NIH). (2009). Stem Cell Information: Ch. 8. Rebuilding the nervous system with stem cells. Retrieved on 22 July 2010 from http://stemcells. nih. gov/info/scireport/chapter8. asp Parker, S. (2005). Biology and Knowledge Revisited: from Neurogenesis to Psychogenesis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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