It should be noted, that mother’s personality plays a significant role in children’s developmental outcomes. Zaslow et al. (2009) suggest that even the age of the head of the household is positively associated with levels of food security/ insecurity for children. Molfese et al. (2010) support these assumptions and say that cognitive outcomes in children are being heavily influenced by a mother’s “ability to adapt characteristics of her personality, such as warm responsiveness or restrictiveness, to her child’s current and changing developmental needs” (p. 52).
Mothers with flexible and approachable character features and agreeableness in their interactions with children produce better cognitive growth outcomes in their children and impact positively children’s socioemotional development (Molfese et al. , 2010). The difficulties in the mother-children relationships reflect in cognitive and emotional difficulties which lead to lower school achievements and even problems in the child’s relationships with classmates.
That is why the woman could not learn to read until the age of 9 – the time when her mother married for the second time and when the conditions of living for the young girl dramatically improved. At the end of the interview, the woman was asked to assess the changes in her needs that happened over the lifetime and to compare her current needs with her concerns during childhood. What the old woman said was not very surprising: nowadays, her food and other physiological needs are less important than her desire to live a full life, to be active, and to pursue additional self-realization opportunities.
This answer goes in line with what Majercsik (2005) writes about Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and geriatric patients. The fact is that the Hierarchy of Needs does not always work with older people, and what has to be on top appears on the bottom (Majerscik, 2005). The restrictions of the remaining life and the realization of the diminished chances and possibilities reflect in strong self-actualization motivation and deny the relevance of the basic physiological needs (Majerscik, 2005).
Like children, adults are being influenced by a variety of factors but these, obviously, are beyond the scope of the current paper. Conclusion That the physical and cognitive development of children is influenced by a multitude of factors is difficult to deny. Food insecurity, the lack of maternal support and attachment, and stressful family atmosphere negatively influence the child’s developmental and socioemotional outcomes. Children who do not perceive maternal support feel unprotected from the social unfairness in the classroom and fail to catch up with the learning successes of their peers.
Getting older, individuals experience the decreasing role of physiological needs and concentrate on self-actualization and self-realization opportunities. These, however, are beyond the scope of the current analysis. References Anonymous. (2009). Piaget. Funderstanding. Retrieved July 29, 2010 from http://www. funderstanding. com/content/piaget Majercsik, E. (2005). Hierarchy of Needs of geriatric patients. Gerontology, 51, 3, 170-173. Molfese, V. J. , Rudasill, K. M. , Beswick, J. L. , Jacobi-Vessels, J. L. & Ferguson, M. C. (2010).
Infant temperament, maternal personality and parenting stress as contributors to infant developmental outcomes. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56, 1, 49-79. Simons, J. A. , Irwin, D. B. & Drinnien, B. A. (1987). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. From Psychology – The search for understanding. Retrieved July 29, 2010 from http://honolulu. hawaii. edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow. htm Zaslow, M. , Bronte-Tinkew, J. , Capps, R. , Horowitz, A. , Moore, K. A. & Weinstein, D. (2009). Food security during infancy: Implications for attachment and mental proficiency in toddlerhood. Matern Child Health J, 13, 66-80.