The literature review in this paper focused on manual injuries viz. the back injuries constituting of the neck & shoulder region, musculoskeletal injuries, sustained by the nursing staff as well as the caregivers for the dependant elderly. The literature review discussed the view of various authors on giving care with enough precaution so that the person taking care of the patient is not injured in the process. One of the paper finding on the care of the elderly dependant focused on the population perspective.
It suggested the caregivers to be physically fit before they start taking care of their dependents. It was found in the study that few caregivers injured themselves while they were moving the patients from one place to another. Another important recommendation which applies to professionals is the need of training. Everyone associated with the nursing must undergo required training to ensure that they know the best practices and the required preventions to minimize the manual injuries to them.
The paper also discussed the case of nursing staff taking care of the patients suffering from disability or mental diseases. In such scenarios, it was found that the risk of manual injuries increases as the nursing staff needs to hold the patients who are not able to control their physical movements. Utilize bio-statistical and epidemiological methodologies in population health research
The significance of bio-statistical and epidemiological methodologies in the research of population health has been clearly visible in the literature review. All the authors as well as the statistical researches came up with their suggestions and conclusions on the basis of these methodologies. The odds ratio and the relative risks were widely used in the papers. The presence of cross-validation with other papers and bootstrapping was observed as well.