Drug abuse is the use of drug in a frequent manner to the extent that it causes mental and physical harm to the user. Drug abuse also leads to impairments of ones social abilities. There are different drugs, which are abused by people including medical drugs, marijuana, alcohol and others. According to various studies that have been conducted on the issues of drug, abuse the rate of the abuse has increased in the past decade. There are those drugs that are mostly abused in the society today.
This is influenced by the fact that either they are readily available to people of all ages because of their cheap price or they are not taken as drugs but as stimulants. According to The National Institute on Drug Abuse the Cigarettes, Tobacco and nicotine are the most abused drug in the whole world. In the United States of America, the institute shows that there are almost forty six million smokers. The deaths out of the use of nicotine and tobacco contribute to almost four hundred deaths. Frequent smoking leads to nicotine and tobacco smoking not only to the smoker but also to those who inhale the smoke (Brick, 2004).
The other drug that is mostly abused is alcohol. Despite the fact that small quantities of red wine have positive health effects frequent intake of alcohol cause cancer and other diseases. Alcohol is abused by people of all ages because of its easy accessibility. Marijuana is also a very common abused drug in the United States of America and in many other parts of the world. The youth are the ones that mostly abuse prescription drugs and Marijuana. There is an increase of abuse of prescriptive drugs by teens who use drugs, which are stored in cabinets and share them with friends.
They abuse the drugs without much knowledge. It becomes difficult to understand how the prescriptive drugs are abused because they have legal prescription by the doctor. (Abadinsky, 2008). Methamphetamine is the most abused of the stimulant drugs. This drug is on the for instance, used to enhance energy production, alertness and used to suppress appetite. When the drug is used excessively it leads to increased physical activity, hypersexual behavior and leads to convulsions, which can be fatal (Brick, 2004). Other drugs that are commonly abused include cocaine and heroin, which is found mostly in powder form.
Steroids, which are mostly, used by athletes in order increase their performance. It is also used to increase muscle mass by the body builders. This drug leads to depression and other violent behaviors to those who abuse it. There also inhalants such as glue, aerosol or cleaning solutions. These are drugs, which are used by young people who want to get high, but they cannot access other drugs that are expensive (Abadinsky, 2008). There are many reasons as to why there is increase in drug abuse in the society. This is mostly related to change in lifestyle and other social and economic factors.
This has been a concern to the government and other agencies because the increase in drug abuse has negative consequences. There are many reasons as to why people re turning into drugs. As a result of the economic hardships that many people are going through at this time, many people have turned into drugs as a source of comfort. There is a lot of pressure as a result of the economic hardships that have affected many states. There are those who are engaged in hard chores, which they feel that the only way they can have more strength to undertake their duties is to take some energy enhancing drugs.
They use drugs without following the instruction of the medical practitioners until they become addicted (Hanson, Venturelli & Fleckenstein, 2006). There is also pressure for people to perform in whatever tasks that they are engaged. For instance, there has been increased cases of sportsmen engaging in drugs to enhance their performance. This is caused by the pressure from their coaches and from their fans. There has also been drastic change in the lifestyle. The society has changed from the traditional type of society to modern society, which is so open to many things.
Studies have shown that many children learn to use drugs from their parents. This is because many parents take the drugs in the presence of their children. Children copy the behavior from their parents as they take it to be right because it is done by an elder member of the society or a parent. The moral values of the society have become loose where the society does not care so much hoe the children are socialized. This is different from the way the children were socialized in the past because children belonged to the society and all members of the society were concerned on the socialization process of the children (Abadinsky, 2008).
In the world today, it is even common to find parents going together with their children to bars and take alcohol together. All these changes have made children to start engaging in drug abuse at early age hence the increase in drug abuse. The parents and the society in general do not realize they are causing to children and the future of the society. The school curriculum has also changed where it is more oriented to academic performance. The curriculum lacks the aspect teaching life skills to children. This has made children to lack enough guidance as they grow through the adolescent phase to become adults.
This has made many children to engage and become addicted to drugs when they are in their experimental age. Adolescent age is an age where a lot of life skills need to be imparted to children because this is the age where they experiment a lot of things including the use of drugs. Due to lack of enough guidance through the school, many of them are falling into the temptation of drug abuse (Hanson, Venturelli & Fleckenstein, 2006). Drug abuse is a major concern of the society and the concern continues to increase because of the increase in drug abuse in the society.
This is because the drug abuse not only affects the addicts but also leads to negative effects to the society. Drugs have devastating effects both to the individual and to the society. The major effect of drug abuse to the individual includes health effects and untimely deaths. Some of the diseases that affect most people who use drugs are contracted by the use of needles that the drug users use to inject drugs in their bodies. According to report by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, over 3. 5 million individuals reported to have injected themselves with illicit drugs in their life.
Among that population, fourteen percent of the people were under the age of twenty five years. The same report also showed that one twenty thousand adults who had AIDS in the United States of America in 2003 reposted to have contracted the disease through the use of drug use. Centre for Disease Control also showed that almost twenty five thousand people died in the same year as a result of diseases related to drug effects (Hanson & Fleckenstein, 2006). Drug addiction also makes many children of the victims to be neglected.
This is because the individuals spend most of their time being preoccupied with drugs. Parents who abuse drugs put the need of the drugs before the needs if their children. They neglect the health of the children, and their wealth fare. Drug uses by pregnant mothers also have effects to the unborn child. Children whom their parents abuse drugs are fall victims of abuse both physically and emotionally as they lack proper medical care, immunizations and other basic needs. The risk gets higher in case where parents or their guardian manufactures the drugs.
This is because children from such home are affected in their health as they inhale poisonous chemicals that are used in the manufacture if the drugs for example anhydrous ammonia and hydriodic acid. Those children have high possibility of testing positive of methamphetamine, which leads to short, and long-term health effects. Neglect of the children also leads to psychological and other development problems to the children (Ammerman & Tarter, 1999). Drug abuse also has economic impacts on businesses whose worker abuse the drugs. This is because most people who are addicted to drugs cannot function to their maximum.
They may also put the lives of other people at risk for example those who hold positions such as airline pilots and drivers. Businesses are affected because employees who abuse the drugs are known to steal business properties so that they can get money to buy the drugs. Drug abusers are not as productive as those who do not abuse drugs. Furthermore, there are possibilities of absenteeism and more use of medical and insurance benefits by workers who abuse drugs. The economic consequences of drug abuse also burdens federal, local and state resources and affect the taxpayers indirectly (Flowers, 1999).
Drug addicts require extensive medical treatment, which makes most state resources to be directed to the treatment of the addicts. Those who abuse and abandon their children makes the government to make addition of social services costs. Law enforcement resources and budgets also get strained as most people who abuse drugs end up committing crimes such as domestic violence, burglary and other crimes. In the United States of America, it is estimated that the federal government spends sixty seven billion dollars per years in costs that are related to incarceration and crime.
Other cost include treatment to drug addiction, medical costs from injuries and complications related to drug abuse and also in costs related to social welfare programs (Hanson & Fleckenstein, 2006). Drug abusers also cause social problems to their families. This is because there are emotions of failure, depression, confusion and terror that the drug addicts inflict to themselves and also to other members of their families. Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease, which causes compulsive seeking of drugs regardless of the negative consequences the drug has to the one who is taking the drug and to the society.
Drug addiction is a disease because it results to change in the structure and the normal functioning of the brain. Addiction is caused by repeated use of the drug, which affects the self-control of a person and his or her ability to make good decisions. It is the change in the brain that makes it difficult for people who are addicted to drugs to stop using the drugs (Rapaka & Sadee, 2008). Drug addiction can be treated by use of combination of addiction treatment medications. Behavioral therapy can also be utilized as one of best ways that can be used to ensure success for most of drug addicted patients.
The treatments should be tailored depending on the patterns of drug abuse of a patient. The reasons as to why a patient abuses the drug should also be put into consideration, for example, the social problems, psychiatric in the treatment process (Wilson & Kolander, 2010). There are many factors that make a person to become addicted to drugs. The risk for drug addiction depends on social environment, biology, age and developmental stage of a person. Genetic factors combined with the environment plays a great part in making a person be addicted or to becoming vulnerable to drug addiction.
There are other factors such as gender, ethnicity and presence of mental disorders that put one into risk for drug addiction and abuse. The environment, which includes family, friends, quality of life and other factors such as socioeconomic status also, contributes in making an individual become addicted to drugs. Social factors such as peer pressure, stress, parental involvement, physical and sexual abuse have influence on the cause of drug abuse and addiction in the life of a person. When environmental and genetic factors combine with stage in life of a person they also influence the vulnerability one has to drug addiction.
The earlier a person starts abusing drugs the more the person becomes vulnerable to become seriously addicted. This mostly affects adolescents because their minds are still developing. This means that they may fail to have self-control, govern their decision making and therefore they are vulnerable to engage in risky behaviors (Schinke & Gilbert, 1997). However, drug addiction is a disease that can be prevented. According to a research funded by National Institute of Drug Abuse, there are prevention programs, which involve schools, communities, families that are effective in reduction of drug abuse (Singer & Rebecca, 2000).
Despite the fact that other events and culture affect drug addiction trends when young people view drug addiction as a in a negative behavior they can reduce their intake of drugs. Therefore, it becomes necessary to make the youth and the public to understand the risk related to drug addiction. It should be the responsibility of the teachers, parents and the society in general to make sure that children grow in environment that does not enhance their possibility of engaging in drug abuse, which may then lead to addiction. Therefore, as can be seen drug abuse is something that can be prevented by use of effective programmes.
The programs work effectively when they respond to the needs of society. All the relevant sectors should be involved and also the programme which incorporate monitoring and evaluation. The cost that can be incurred in these drug abuse preventive programs would definitely be lower than the cost, which results from ill health and crime, which arise as a result of drug abuse in the society. References Abadinsky, H. (2008) Drug use and abuse: a comprehensive introduction, 6th edition, Belmont Cengage Learning. Ammerman, R. & Tarter, P. (1999). Prevention and societal impact of drug and alcohol abuse
New York, Routledge. Brick, J. (2004) Handbook of the medical consequences of alcohol and drug abuse, 1st edition, New York, Routledge. Flowers, R. (1999) Drugs, alcohol and criminality in American society, North Carolina McFarland, Hanson, G. & Fleckenstein, A. (2006) Drugs and society, 9th edition, Ontario, Jones & Bartlett Learning. Hanson, G. Venturelli, P. & Fleckenstein, A. (2006) Drugs and society, 9th edition, London Jones & Bartlett Learning. Rapaka, R. & Sadee, W. (2008) Drug Addiction: From Basic Research to Therapy, 1st edition, Columbus, Springer