EMS is the certification standards published in 1996 to introduce the environmental improvement into various organizations’ operations. They offer the organized approaches to manage environmental issues and currently it has become a global administrative tool in corporate environmental management. As defined by ISO 14001, environmental management system (EMS) is that part of management that includes structure, planning, activities, and practices, implementing and maintaining the environmental policies.
The standards give elements of an effective EMS to be integrated with the organization’s management system. But before this, several factors lead to adoption of the standard by most companies. Some findings indicate that, the top management involvement, manager’s values and beliefs and company’s management awareness towards its environmental protection including its motivation and perceived benefits induced the adoption (Zurtshi & Sohal 2004). To trace the roots of EMS, back in 1980’s there was a need to ensure compliance with the ever increasing environmental rules.
In 1992, there was an emphasis on environmental protection to the corporate. This made the International Standardization organization (ISO) to develop these EMSs that was finalized in 1995. Prior to the development of ISO 14000, in 1996, the subsequent development of ISO 14001 was developed to counter the weaknesses of ISO 14000 and better the environmental performances of the firms. This is how EMS ultimately led to ISO 14001 standards. The adoption of ISO 14001 is greatly hindered by the following elements; as with other management-bases systems, it requires top management support.
Since the commitment of the personalities involves human energy and mind, the top management can dare decline to participate in the initiation of the standard making it not to succeed. Besides, for it to be implemented, it requires market force incentives in that it needs to be extensively accepted internationally. Firms should on the other hand motivate its implementation and certification by acknowledging its benefits. Further, the firm should have access to sufficient level of resources and personnel for the standard to operate.
This is because these corporate resources plays important roles I environmental options considered by the firm. Nevertheless, it requires proper regulatory mechanisms to help put it in practice by the various firms in different societies. And finally, it requires a culture in an organization that accepts change whenever due (Babakri, Bennett & Franchetti 2003) To measure the system, the validity of the formulated hypothesis generated from the relationship between the ISO 14001 and its requirements has to be determined.
The hypothesis could be; if the organization chooses to adopt the standard or not, will it be influenced by the elements stated above? First, samples are collected from various firms to determine the factors discriminating the adoption of the standard. In this case the respondent target is the environmental management personalities. The independent variables (requirements of the ISO 14001) are then measured by the five –point Likert scale to determine the disagreement degree of the correlation between the standard and the requirements.
Other measurements of the system would include: the reliability test that determines the reliability coefficient of the two factors; the discriminant analysis used to discriminate the factors influencing the standard by ranking them and the chi-square test used to test the relationship between the type of industry, ownership, type of the company and the EMS programs in an entity. These are some of the test tools that try to outline the relationship of the standard and the dependent variables which discriminates its adoption.
List of reference Babakri, K, Bennett, R & Franchetti, M (2003). ‘Critical factors for implementing ISO 14001 standards in United States industry companies’, Elsevier Science Ltd, Vol. 11. Zurtshi, A & Sohal A (2004). ‘A study of environmental management system (EMS) adoption process within Australian organizations’, Elsevier Ltd, Vol. 24. This section must include a description of the planning process, an outline of the EMS, ISO 14001 requirements, and a discussion of how the system will be measured.