Epiglottitis by definition is the swelling of the flap at the end of the tongue- the epiglottitis- hence leading to problems in breathing. This swelling is a bacterial disease caused by Haemophilus influenza and majorly impinges on children. It is characterized by swallowing difficulties, fever, the voice becoming hoarse, salivating frequently and high-pitched sound. In addition, it leads to superficial breathing in children and tends to cause them to hold their heads forward (Dykes, 2005, P. 69).
With advancement in time, the throat swells causing deficiency of the oxygen supply to the body. Paediatric croup is the swelling of the sub-epiglottis tissues in the upper tract of the respiratory system and is common to infants below five years of age. The parainfluenza virus according to (Dykes, 2005, P. 74) causes paediatric croup but Lissauer and Clayden (2001, P. 3) claim that it is also caused by respiratory synctial virus (RSV), mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza.
Noisy breathing, hoarseness in voice, a sore throat causing coughing that is rough with a barking sound, high body temperatures and wheezing are the principal characteristics of paediatric croup. Bronchiolitis is a viral infection, caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), of the bronchioles causing them to swell and to be mucus-filled, hence resulting to breathing difficulties. It is a common infection to young children during the first two years, the reason being that their airways are small hence easily blocked.
Bronchiolitis is characterized by mild fever and cough, running nose, wheezes and stuffiness. Severe difficulties in the respiratory system such as the heart beating rapidly, rapid breathing, retractions, irritations and sparkling of the nostrils. Coughing is also evident and may be accompanied by vomiting (Mouriget, 2010, 35). Bronchiolitis causes dehydration due to hard breathing and vomiting. Differences between Bronchiolitis, Paediatric Croup and Epiglottitis
Bronchiolitis is a viral infection caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), paediatric croup is also a viral infection caused not only by Respiratory Syncytial Virus but also by parainfluenza, according to (Dyke, 2005, P. 74), and mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza, while epiglottitis is a bacterial infection caused by Haemophilus influenza. Epiglottitis causes voice hoarseness and high pitching of sound, Paediatric croup causes sore throat, noisy breathing accompanied by a hoarse voice while bronchiolitis causes a whistling noise which is high-pitched especially when breathing in (O’Callaghan & Stephenson, 2002, p. 4).
Epiglottitis is the swelling of the epiglottis while paediatric croup is the swelling of the sub-epiglottis tissues in the upper tract of the respiratory system. Bibliography Dykes, J. 2005. Managing Children with Croup in Emergency Departments. London, Praeger Lissaue, T & Clayde, G. 2001. Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics. Mosby, Edinburgh. Mouriget, I. 2010. Lungs and Respiratory System. New York, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates O’Callaghan, C ; Stephenson, T. 2002. Pocket Pediatrics. London, Churchill Livingstone