Health and human services

Health and human services

Introduction

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This paper is a proposal that will discuss the ‘problems and solutions of growing human population in under-developed countries’, the most prevailing environmental issue which is also a cause of many other natural issues. We will start off by describing in detail the human population structure followed by discussing factors that make it grow and are affected by it. Finally, a new strategy, a program will be developed to help resolve this problem. Its requirements in terms of budget, staffing etc will be studied.

Discussion

Problem

Human Population is a common term known by everyone. It means the total number of humans in the world at some point in time. As of July 9, 2008 (right now), the world’s total population is 6,680,868,667 (World Population Clock- Worldometers, 2008) and has increased as I was completing the sentence. The number keeps growing every second. Human Population itself is not a problem. However, it becomes a problem when too many or too less humans live in it and this is known as Over Population and Under Population respectively. Total population is increasing at a rate of around 1.15 % per year and the average annual population change is approximated at over 77 million right now.

Human population follows the pattern of an exponential growth; it grows slowly at first but then very rapidly (Hopkins, J., 2008). This clearly has implications for the future as the world will become over-populated at one time. Over-population is when the resources of an area can not meet the needs of the humans living in it or in other words the Earth’s carrying capacity is utilized. Hence, it is problematic, very.

Analysis

The most obvious factor that contributes to human population is humans themselves. Population obviously increases because of increased birth rates or an increase in the fertility rate. People in developing countries are having more and more babies everyday because of which the number is increasing. Humans are also affected by the growing population themselves.

Along with increased birth rates, decreased death rates or mortality also could also contribute to human population. The death/mortality rate decreases when medical and health care facilities are good. The growth in an economy is shown by increased and enhanced health-care facilities and hence, a lower number of deaths and a higher life expectancy age. Therefore, the level of development and population is definitely correlated.

Other than that, migration also contributes to and is affected human population. It increases as humans move in to a place. However, migration clearly has no effect on the overall world population except if people move to countries where restriction policies on the number of children apply.

When humans live in a place, they make use of the resources in that place also. As a result, humans certainly have an impact. The human population makes use of the Earth’s limited resources to satisfy there needs and wants. Pollution increases when they use resources to make goods (Chiras, D.D., 2006). Humans not only have negative impacts; there are positive ones too. They obviously develop the area that they live in. They bring in technology and make doing things easy. Some even preserve wild life and rivers and oceans. Therefore, they have reversed their traditional, more primitive ways into caring ones.

Policy Elements

My program would be a ‘large-scale public awareness program’. It would mostly include creating awareness in developing countries to cut down on the number of babies and that too, mostly through non-profit environmental organizations. In developing countries, where people do not have enough resources to buy basic goods such as wheat, the last thing on their minds is to spend whatever little money they get mostly from beggary, on informational and luxurious goods such as televisions, radios, newspapers, magazines and etc. Therefore, my program will involve building and setting up several mini sub-agencies throughout the rural areas of India.

Therefore, those non-profit consultancies organizations must be encouraged here that provide awareness on family planning, provide contraception and sex-education, future opportunities and challenges, etc. These organizations must be free of charge and they must especially educate women in rural areas, where birth rates are the highest. There must be one such organization in every fifty square miles. Young and literate people working in these organizations must start a campaign and go from home to home to educate the people.

The benefits of this plan are that it would probably decrease the birth rate in areas where it is the highest. Developed countries have very stable population growths and some even have under-growth. But they have to face problems of over-population in the world because of the ever increasing rate of population in developing economies like India, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and other African and Asian countries. The benefits will be that resources will be more available for future generations. They will have to suffer less if population growth is controlled today. The burden on Earth today will be reduced. Its carrying capacity will be efficiently utilized.

Another benefit, a more economical one, is that poverty can be fought. More will be left for other people due to which poverty levels can go down. There is a huge difference in the comparative value of the determinants of poverty dynamics and fertility; a high fertility rate and poverty in Ethiopia is due to low economic growth along with desire for having babies and lack of family planning. As seen in Vietnam, Indonesia and Albania, education is important for reducing poverty and fertility both (Aassve et al, 2006).

Financing

 Because this plan is long-range and because it needs to build infra-structure and because there is no profit in it, it will need to be financed. This project will be huge and will need to be provided for by the governments of these developing nations. These provisions can be in the form of subsidies because after all these organizations will help to greatly improve the economies and will help cut down on a number of problems that arise from a high population growth. The budget that is forecasted will be around $100,000 which will include opening six public awareness mini-agencies and their birth-control campaigns for now. This does not include salaries, which will be minimal because it is mostly volunteer work. This also excludes the travel expense to and in India which will be financed by a sponsor; Amul.

Staffing

This plan will also require societal support in terms of younger people who are willing to educate and spread the word. They must be educated, preferably older than 18 years and must be literate in the subject. Anybody and Everybody who fits the requirements will be hired once they have agreed. We will need art school graduates also to create designs for the banners and other accessories that will promote awareness. We will need a handful of volunteers that are familiar with the local language (Hindi) and also the geography of the rural areas. Meanwhile, the rest of the society can give back in the form of charities.

Last but definitely not the least, these employees will be given a code of ethics that they will need to follow in any circumstance.

Evaluation

The success (or failure) of this program will not be easy to evaluate. Firstly, because it is very long-term; the population structure of that rural area of India we will be operating in will have to be monitored for about two years to really see if the fertility rate is decreasing. Secondly, it is large-scale in the sense that many small agencies will be operating under this program. It will be hard to say which one made the most difference. This, however, is not much important because the overall objective is to create awareness at the end of the day. It does not matter which agency created it.

Conclusion

Global support and governance is also required for this plan. We could do with more shows such as American idol who give back. People from across the globe must be willing to help finance such projects in the different developing countries, especially in Africa where there is so much poverty. If everyone stands together in this to reduce the over-all population burden in the world, this program is bound to work.

References

1.      (2008). World Population Clock. Retrieved June 27, 2008 from Worldometers. Website: http://www.worldometers.info/population/

2.      Hopkins, J. (2008). Human Population Crisis. Retrieved June 27, 2008 from Cosmosmith. Website: http://www.cosmosmith.com/human_population_crisis.htm

3.      Chrias, D.D. (2006). Environmental Science. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

4.      Aassve, A., Engelhardt, H., Francavilla, F., Kedir, A., Kim, J., Mealli, F., Mencarini, L., Pudney, S., Prskawetz, A.(2006). Poverty and Fertility Dynamics:  A comparative Analysis. Population Review. 45(2). Poulation Review Publications.

 

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