Mental disorders and drugs that act as lobotomies

One of the most common modes of management is the prescription of mood stabilizers and ensuring the individuals are less exposed to situations that may catalyze high moods. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that is characterized by an abnormal perception of reality. It is commonly manifested in hallucinations, paranoia and disillusion (Meleis, 2006). Poor speech and disorganized thinking also characterize the condition and it normally kicks in with the beginning of adulthood (Meleis, 2006).

Diagnosis like in most psychiatric cases is based on individual experiences and third party observations (Meleis, 2006). Genetics, environment, social issues and psychological conditions have been cited as the probable causes of the condition. A major problem in the diagnosis of the condition is that no one sign can be keyed on as being deterministic of schizophrenia and therefore diagnosis is quite tiresome. The method used in diagnosis is largely reliant on the presence, duration and degree of certain symptoms and signs.

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The evaluation of individuals suspected to be suffering from the condition involves a general medical examination and a thorough neurological examination (Meleis, 2006). The tests are rarely repeated except in cases where there is evidence of adverse effects of antipsychotic drugs. The cure for the diseases remains highly controversial, although some have suggested the use of remission as an approach to dealing with the problem (Meleis, 2006). The general trend in the treatment and management of the condition is the minimization of the rate of occurrence and degree of the symptoms.

In severe conditions, the patient may be hospitalized for easier management of the symptoms though the treatment often takes on the outpatient approach. The patients are administered with antipsychotic medication and which help in the management of the symptoms. Therapy, especially electroconvulsive therapy, is also used with the drugs in handling the mental conditions (Meleis, 2006). Dementia is the decline in cognitive abilities due to progressive brain damage for reasons beyond the normal aging process (Meleis, 2006). It can occur at any stage of a human life though it is more common in the elderly people.

The condition has no specific set of symptoms and it affects the normal brain activities and may thus lead to loss of memory, attention, verbal activity and comprehension (Meleis, 2006). The disease is characterized by the loss of higher brain functions at its onset. Its symptoms are classified as either reversible or irreversible depending on the nature of its manifestation. The diagnosis of the condition requires specialized practitioners for it is complex, though there are some short tests that can be conducted effectively to determine if an individual suffers from reduced brain activity.

The laboratory tests are aimed at determination of the absence of preventable cause and involve the determination of vitamin levels. Chronic use of substance has also been identified as a cause. Development in technology has made it possible for one to come up with images of the brain and help in identification of physical damage though such equipments do not in any way help in discovering the metabolic changes associated with the disease (Meleis, 2006).

The disease manifest itself in several forms some treatable and other whose cure is yet to be developed. One management strategy employed in handling the condition is administration of drugs that help in slowing down the progression of the disease (Meleis, 2006). Therapy is widely used in managing the psychological torture that the patients undergo due to the inability to perform basic human activities.

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