Osteoporosis can occur when the non-collagenous protein in the bone is altered it could result to a bone disease which can lead to an increased risk of fracture which is the disruption of the micro architecture of the bone. It is a typical disease for women after menopause specifically termed as post menopausal osteoporosis. But a once hormonal disorder occurs in man or some chronic diseases that results in taking up glucocorticoids or steroid its effect will lead to the risk of the fragility.
Signs and Symptoms There is no exact symptom for osteoporosis the probable consequence is the increasing risk of bone fracture which is often for unhealthy people with osteoporosis. The vertebral column, hip, rib and wrist are the areas in the body which can have a typical fragility fractures. Modifiable Risk Factors Alcohol drinking does not increase the risk of having osteoporosis but heavy drinking during younger age increases the risk considerably because alcohol hinder the process of absorbing calcium .
Insufficiency in vitamin D which is common to the older age individual globally, the production of parathyroid Hormone (PTH) increases that results to bone loss as vitamin D intake decreases. Furthermore, smoking is another independent risk factor in developing osteoporosis it represses the activity of the osteoblasts. Almost 98% of the calcium in the body is found within the bones, it is needed all through life in order to build and sustain strong bones. Excessive intake of protein as well as sodium amplifies calcium loss all the way through the kidney.
Furthermore, increase consumption of foods with high component of oxalic and phytic acid decreases calcium absorption Lower bone density is the result of an augmented breakdown of exogenous estrogen, in early menopause and lower body weight because being over weight protects the body against osteoporosis due to the increased weight of the body or the high percentage of the hormone leptin. During adolescence, many individual has a low dietary intake of protein, calcium, vitamin K and C which results to lower peak bone mass eventually results to lower bone density in older age.
Osteomalacia (softening of the bone) is the result of higher incidence of being exposed to cadmium; it is a strong metal that in connection to this element could lead to a bone disease. In contrast, the low level exposure can result to increase chance of loosing bone mineral density for both male and female finally leading to pain and increased risk of fractures. Research also shows that the intake of carbonated drinks which has the component of phosphoric acid can increase the possibility of osteoporosis.
Non- Modifiable Risk Factors Women are more prone to develop osteoporosis than men because they have less bone mass of 10-25%, they will lose the bone mass faster after the menopause stage, men can also develop osteoporosis but in a lower risk. Study shows that calcium adsorption is related to woman’s age as the person gets older there are an increased bone loss and the lesser capability of the bones to absorb calcium. In women, the chance of developing osteoporosis in their 50’s is 15% and 50% when they reach the age of 80.