Middle range theory is a set of some related ideologies that usually focus on nursing reality (Mary & Patricia, 2008). The theories comprise of suggested relationships and concepts that are depicted in a model. They grow and develop at research and practice intersection to offer guidance to scholarly research and every day practice that is rooted in the nursing discipline. Mid range theories are abstract and comprise of propositions that are measurable. They balance the precision need and are focused than the grand theories (McKenna, 1997).
The mid range theories focuses on those concepts that are of interest to the nurses though they hardly cover a vast phenomena that are of concern within the nursing discipline. Leininger has gone ahead to discuss at length the cultural care diversity theory. It is therefore imperative to summarize it and indicate how it is applicable. Cultural care adversity theory Theorists believe that transcultural nursing care offers the broadest and vital means in explaining, studying, and predicting nursing knowledge.
Cultural care diversity theory was basically initiated from the experiences of the clinic that recognized that the culture was the missing link of nursing practice and knowledge. The theory was set to act as a guide for enhancement of nursing knowledge. The concept of care was initially gotten from nursing whereas culture was derived from anthropology. The main goal of the theory is to offer congruent practices in nursing (Madeleine, 1988). Culture care diversity theory is the only theory that is focused on transcultural nursing and focuses on cultural care.
The theory focuses on explaining, describing, and predicting the nursing similarities as well as the differences that are usually focused on caring of human cultures. It is not based on diseases, symptoms or treatments but is focused on approach methods to care that are significant to the patients. Nurses ought to view their patients in connection with their culture in order to develop great wellness levels. The theory advocates for the nurses to enhance cultural competencies in order to offer quality care to the patients coming from divergent cultures (Jenna, Tommy, Tara & Kevin, n. d).
Application of Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity For example in integrating cultural diversity theory into practice we may give a brief analysis on African American women and substance use. Substance use is quite epidemic in most cultures today and is a major concern both transculturally and nationally. Therefore it is important for the nurses as well as other health providers who work with multiculturally clients to comprehend the major cultural implications of caring for women and children who have drug and alcohol dependence.
Ehrmin (2005, pp. 117-125) in his research study aims to discover the expressions and meanings of care for the African American women who are substance dependent. There was a sample of 18 participants. This study was conceptualized in Leininger’s cultural care theory. There was an in depth interviews and ethnonursing techniques which were used to collect the data. The results comprised of four basic universal care themes which comprised of cultural/gender care needs as compared to ethnohistory, cultural context and social structure. All this were discovered that they influence the health of women as well as their entire well being in their road to recovery.
We can therefore depict that a patient’s culture is a vital tool when caring for an individual person and when the person’s culture is made the major focus in caring. Is the theory of Culture Care Diversity Grand or mid range theory? Most scholars assert that this theory is neither a grand nor a mid range theory. Leininger asserts that the theory is not a grand theory because it has specific dimensions that access for the entire picture. It uses a holistic approach that has led to vast nursing applications and practices than those that are expected in middle range.
The culture care theory is not a grand theory or middle range theory (Madeleine ; McFarland 2006). Middle range theories reduce the data to some specific variables and usually fail in grasping multiple and holistic related factors on human care. Culture care theory is broad and offers general care (Madeleine, ; McFarland, 2006). Current mid range theory; self care deficit theory The theory of self care deficit by Orem falls under mid range theories. It is usually categorized in three parts namely the theory of self care, the theory of self care deficit and the theory of nursing systems.
Orem’s approach to the process of nursing offers methods that usually determine the deficits of self care and the roles of the nurse in meeting the needs demands (Taylor, Geden ; Wongvatunyu 2000, pp. 104-110). Orem’s Self Care deficit theory of nursing comprise of the symptoms that are experienced by patients. The theory can be used to determine child’s self care and the mother’s dependent agent (Moore 1993, pp. 199-212). The family is usually conceptualized in this theory as factors that does condition the individuals’ requirement for the ability and care to offer self care and as a major service unit.
The family has a role in developing self agency in order to enhance the health of the whole family (Susan 1989, pp. 131-137). Just like in middle rage theories, in self care deficit theory, the components parts are usually identified and the relationships of the components are evaluated and examined (Sandra ; Timothy 2008, p. 48). Nurses can promote exercises in women and children through Orem’s self care deficit theory in order to minimize cardiovascular diseases (Sherri ; Cindy 2007, 65-70). Orem’s self care deficit theory is a middle rage theory because it focuses on those concepts that are of interest to the nurses though it is not broad.
Conclusion Mid range theories has a vital influence in nursing practices. The health care providers should find a way in which they will integrate them in their practices in order to enhance the well being of the patients. References Calloway, Jenna. , Hartono, Tommy ; Melborne, Tara. N. d. Levine’s conservation model and Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality. Retrieved 5, June, 2010; www. plu. edu/~kirbyln/doc/theories-leininger. ppt Jean, Moore. 1993. Predictors of children’s self care performance: Testing the theory of self care deficit.
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