An individual having mental illness of any other form and more specific, any other anxiety disorder can be a risk factor for one to develop OCD. This relationship is said to be complex even though OCD in some people is known to be risk factor of other several mental illness. Some personality characteristics may as well contribute to vulnerability of developing obsession compulsive disorder. An example is for people who usually have high score on the neuroticism measure who are often at a greater risk to develop OCD.
In addition, illicit drug usage can be risk factor to develop OCD (Antony, & Swinson, 1998). Use of drugs can cause vulnerability for one to develop OCD since it causes the brain to have neurotransmitter changes, and also it can indirectly cause other additional stress to a person due to conflicts by parents, difficult in maintaining employment as well as one having trouble or problem with the society law. Marital status is also risk factor to a person to develop OCD especially to the unmarried where the risk seems to be high (Antony, & Swinson, 1998).
Whether being unmarried can cause this disorder is unclear since being unmarried may be due to debilitating symptoms of OCD that one can get in the process of forming a relationship. Furthermore, marriages can buffer people against stress of life and thus reduces the chance of a person developing OCD. Employment status is also risk factor for one to develop OCD especially if one is unemployed. However, as in the case of a person who is unmarried, unemployment is said to be both consequence and cause of the OCD symptoms (Antony, & Swinson, 1998). If the socioeconomic status is low, then it can serve as risk factor for one to develop OCD.
Just as the case of unemployment and marital status, it is not clear whether socioeconomic status is a consequence or cause of the OCD symptoms. How obsessive compulsive disorder might manifest in different behaviors (or symptoms) at different stages in development Essential symptoms of OCD are said to be recurrent compulsions and obsessions that can be severe enough to consume one’s time, people with this disorder spend more than one hour every day because of them (National Institute of Mental Health, 2010). This obsessions and compulsions may even cause significant impairment or marked stress to a person.
Obsessions are persistent and recurrent thoughts, images and impulses which can be experienced at sometime during disturbance, as inappropriate and intrusive that may also cause marked distress or anxiety. The impulses, images or thoughts are not just simple excessive worries concerned with real-life problems. A person with these obsessions attempts to suppress or ignore such thoughts, images or impulses or even neutralize them. One can neutralize those obsessions with other actions or thought (Coschug-Toates, & Toates, 2002). One later recognizes the obsession impulses, images and thoughts are product of her or his own mind.
Compulsions are repetitive behaviors such as checking, ordering or hand washing and also mental works such as counting, praying, and silently repeating words. A person feels as if is driven to perform such acts and behaviors in response to obsession or as accordance to rules which ought to be rigidly applied (Kazdin, 1997). These mental acts or behaviors are aimed to reduce or preventing distress or even preventing certain dreaded situations or events. However, these mental acts and behaviors are either not connected to realistic way of how they are been designed so as to neutralize or may be then tend to be clearly excessive.
At a point of time in this course of disorder, a person comes to realize that the compulsions or obsessions are unreasonable and excessive. This only applies to adult people who have disorders but not to the children. Compulsions or obsessions bring marked distress, and also may be time consuming to some extend that they can interfere with normal routine of a person, occupational or academic functioning as well as other useful relationships and activities. If any other disorder of any kind is present, content of compulsions or obsessions can not be restricted in any way to it (Kazdin, 1997).
The disturbance can not be said to be due to direct effect of the physiological substance. Other symptoms in form of obsessive thoughts include fear of a person to be contaminated by dirt, germs or even contaminating others, Fear of a person causing harm others or to himself, focusing excessively on moral and religious ideas, intrusive violent or sexually explicit thoughts and images, fear of not having things a person may be in need of them, idea of needing every thing one is doing to be just right and also one having superstitions (Rachman, & Silva, 2004).
Symptoms in form of compulsive behavior for people suffering from OCD can include the following; double checking things excessively such as appliances, switches and locks. This may be present to many people suffering from OCD irrespective of their age. One may also repeatedly check their beloved ones to ensure that they are safe. One may also spend much time doing cleaning as well as washing. A person may also spend much time just ordering or arranging things to appear to him or her neat. Conclusion
This disorder can seriously affect an individual and completely change his or her way of living. It thus necessary for people suffering from it to have the disorder diagnosed or treated so as to avoid one from living stressful or complicated lives. Proper understanding of this disorder is crucial for the health of an individual and the community at large. References Antony, M. , & Swinson, R. (1998). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Theory, research, and Treatment. New York: Guilford Press. Cambridge University Press. Cicchetti, & J. Weisz (Eds. ), Developmental Psychopathology (pp. 248-272).
NY: Corner, R. , Hull, J. , & Hull, D.. (2007). Test Bank to Accompany Ronald J. Cromer Abnormal Psychology, Sixth Edition. New York: Worth Publishers. Coschug-Toates, O. , & Toates, F. (2002). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Practical, Tired-and Tested Strategies to overcome OCD. London: Class Publishing. Kazdin, A. E. (1997). Conduct disorder across the life-span. In S. Luthar, J. Burak, D. MedlinePlus. (2010).
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Retrieved August 11, 2010, from http://www. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/obsessivecompulsivedisorder. html National Institute of Mental Health. (2010). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, OCD. Retrieved August 11, 2010, from http://www. nimh. nih. gov/health/topics/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/index. shtml Pedrick, C. , & Hyman, B. (2008). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. New York: Twenty-First Century Books. Rachman, S. , & Silva, P. (2004). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Facts. New York: Oxford University Press. Valente, S. (2002). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Perspectives in Psychiatric, 38, 12-21.