Principles of Fitness Training

You are working as a health fitness instructor in the Swansea Tennis Centre and Gym. Your job responsibilities include planning exercise programmes for clients and helping to instruct exercise sessions. Describe in a booklet the principles of fitness training you would apply to your clients individual training programme. P1/M1 OVERLOAD: The Overload Principle can be achieved through changes in Frequency, Intensity and Time. Firstly , frequency, as you may suspect, is how often you exercise. Most people say anywhere from 3 to 6 days a week, depending upon experience and goals.

Training the full 7 days most of the time isn’t the answer to improving your body’s performance and health. Intensity is how hard you push and what level of effort your body performs to the max . Depending upon whether you’re looking to stretch a workout over a long period of time and work at a slower pace than normally, or race 100 meters at 100% decides how hard you will train. You can work at full throttle for 5 minutes or ease it up for 15, and still get the same benefits. When you’re working your way up from 5 minutes to 10, then the next couple of weeks up to 30, you’re doing something.

Time plays a very important role in fitness, but like a three-legged stool, if one is missing, everything will fall apart. PROGRESSION: individuals frequently make the mistake of attempting too rapid a fitness change. For example is that of the middle-aged man or woman who has done no exercise for 20 years and suddenly begins a very hard training program. The result of such activity is frequently an injury or, at the least, stiffness and soreness. There are no hard-and-fast rules on how fast someone should progress to a higher level of activity.

The individual’s subjective impression of whether or not the body seems to be able to take increased training serves as a good guide. In general it might be reasonable not to progress to higher levels of activity more often than every one or two weeks. SPECIFICITY: The principle of specificity derives from the observation that the adaptation of the body or change in physical fitness is specific to the type of training undertaken. Quite simply this means that if a fitness objective is to increase flexibility, then flexibility training must be used.

If one desires to develop strength, resistance or strengthening exercises must be employed. This principle is indeed simple; however, it is frequently ignored. Many fraudulent claims for an exercise product or system promise overall physical fitness from one simple training technique. A person should be suspicious of such claims and should consider whether or not the exercise training recommended is the type that will produce the specific changes desired. TYPE: The third component in the FITT principle dictates what type or kind of exercise you should choose to achieve the appropriate training response.

Cardio Respiratory Training Using the FITT principle, the best type of exercise to tax or improve the cardiovascular system should be continuous in nature and make use of large muscle groups. Examples include running, walking, swimming, dancing, cycling, aerobics classes, circuit training, cycling etc. Resistance Training This is fairly obvious too. The best form of exercise to stress the neuromuscular system is resistance training. But resistance training does not necessarily mean lifting weights.

Resistance bands could be used as an alternative or perhaps a circuit training session that only incorporates bodyweight exercises. TIME: The final component in the FITT principle of training is time – or how long you should be exercising for. Is longer better? Cardio Respiratory Training Individuals with lower fitness levels should aim to maintain their heart rate within the target heart rate zone for a minimum of 20-30 minutes. This can increase to as much as 45-60 minutes as fitness levels increase. Beyond the 45-60 minute mark there are diminished returns.

For all that extra effort, the associated benefits are minimal. This also applies to many athletes. Beyond a certain point they run the risk of overtraining and injury. There are exceptions however – typically the ultra-long distance endurance athletes. In terms of the duration of the program as a whole, research suggests a minimum of 6 weeks is required to see noticeable improvement and as much as a year or more before a peak in fitness is reached. Resistance Training The common consensus for the duration of resistance training session is no longer than 45-60 minutes.

Again, intensity has a say and particularly grueling strength sessions may last as little as 20 – 30 minutes. Perhaps the most important principle of training (that ironically doesn’t have it’s own letter in the FITT principle) is rest. Exercising too frequently and too intensely hinders the body’s ability to recover and adapt. As a rule of thumb, the harder you train, the more recovery you should allow for. FREQUENCY: frequency refers to how many times a week you do cardio and strength training workouts. It is one component of the basic F. I. T. T.

principles that guide us in creating and changing workout programs. For health, you should exercise at a moderate intensity for 30 minutes, 5 days a week or at a high intensity for 20 minutes, 3 times a week as well as lift weights 2-3 times a week. INTENSITY: The fundamental principles of High Intensity Training (HIT) are that exercise should be brief, infrequent, and intense. Exercises are performed with a high level of effort, or intensity, where it is thought that it will stimulate the body to produce an increase in muscular strength and size.

Advocates of HIT believe that this method is superior for strength and size building to most other methods which, for example, may stress lower weights with larger volume (sets x reps). As strength increases, HIT techniques will have the weight/resistance increased progressively where it is thought that it will provide the muscles with adequate overload to stimulate further improvements. There is an inverse relationship between how intensely and how long one can exercise. As a result, high intensity workouts are generally kept brief.

After a High Intensity workout, as with any workout, the body requires time to recover and produce the responses stimulated during the workout, so there is more emphasis on rest and recovery in the HIT philosophy than in most other weight training methods. In any workout, not just HIT, training schedules should allow adequate time between workouts for recovery (and adaptation). REVERSIBILITY: The Reversibility Principle dictates that athletes lose the effects of training when they stop working out. Conversely, it also means that detraining effects can be reversed when they resume training. In short, If you don’t use it, you lose it.

While rest periods are necessary for recovery, extended rest intervals reduce physical fitness. The physiological effects of fitness training diminish over time, causing the body to revert back to its pre-training condition. OVER-TRAINING: Overtraining is a physical, behavioural, and emotional condition that occurs when the volume and intensity of an individual’s exercise exceeds their recovery capacity. They cease making progress, and can even begin to lose strength and fitness. Overtraining is a common problem in weight training, but it can also be experienced by runners and other athletes. LAW OF REVERSIBILITY:

As You know there is a saying, “If you do not use it, you lose it. ” If athletes are not training most of the time, there is no need for their bodies to adapt. Be creative and innovative in getting your client to train and compete more often. Increased training frequency will not only help them improve their athletic performances, but their fitness levels will improve as a direct result of increased training. That will have a amazing impact on their overall quality of life — they’ll be healthier. It is also very important to not over train or overload the body so much that it experiences incomplete adaptation.

Rest is no longer adequate for recovery. Decline in performance caused by incomplete adaptation is one of the most obvious signs of over training. Additional common signs of over training include the following. * Irritability and moodiness * Altered sleep patterns * Loss of appetite * Loss of motivation or competitive drive * Persistent muscle soreness that does not go away * Fatigue not relieved by rest * Increased incidence of minor illness or injury Law of Specificity The specific nature of a training load produces its own specific response and adaptations. The exercise will have a very specific pattern of joint and muscle coordination.

The training load must be specific to both the individual athlete and the demands of their chosen event. This does not negate general training. General training prepares athletes for specific training. The greater the volume of general training, the greater the capacity is for specific training. Principle of Individualism Athletes respond in their own individual way to fitness activities. Athletes bring their unique talents, capabilities, capacities and responses to training. Heredity determines many physiological factors such as heart and lung size, characteristics of muscle fiber, physique and balance.

The amount of rest and sleep as well as responses to the environment (heat/cold, pollution, stress and altitude) vary from one athlete to another. Nutrition and past or current illness or injury will also have an influence on ability to perform. The body’s physiological readiness for training is another important factor. Athletes at the same chronological age can be at very different levels of maturity, and up to four years apart in their developmental and biological ages. In addition, training age, the length of time an athlete has been training, must also be considered. Principle of Active Involvement

Perhaps the most important principle, active involvement, requires the athlete wanting to actively and willingly participate in their training program. Improvement in overall fitness requires long-term commitment by the coach and especially the athlete. This requires that all aspects of an athlete’s life contribute to the success of his/her performance on the field of play. Training Principles Summary Law of Overload * Body adapts to training loads — explains how training works * Adequate training loads improve overall fitness and increase performance * Factors impacting training load — frequency, duration and intensity

Law of Reversibility * Training loads that increase progressively create higher fitness levels * No increase in fitness will occur if loading is too far apart or stays the same * Over training or incomplete adaptation occurs when training loads are too great or too close Law of Specificity * Specific training load produces specific response and adaptations * General training prepares athletes for specific training * Greater the volume of general training, greater the capacity for specific training

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