Treatment and Prevention of Gonorrhea

There are a wide range of antibiotics can be used to treat gonorrheal infections. In choosing the correct regimen for an effective treatment program, crucial consideration is given to the site of infection, the presence of other concurrent infections and the possibility of antibiotic resistance (Wilson et al 2001). They include amoxallin, azithromycin, ampicillin, cefixime, cetotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime, levofloxacin, and spectinomycin. These drugs have distinct dosages levels but they are all administered in a single dose.

Tetracycline is also a drug of choice in the treatment of gonorrheal infections but the level of resistance exhibited by many strains of N. gonorrhoeae across different parts of the world makes it an ineffective option in the management of diarrhea. Flouroquinones (levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin) cannot be administered during pregnancy. However, in the event that a pregnant woman presents herself for treatment, it is crucial that all the partners be encouraged to seek treatment and be screened for the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases.

Since co infection with clamydia is extremely common, a combination of antibiotics such as administration of ceftriaxone with azithromycin or doxycycline is effective in treating the two infections of bacterial etiology. During treatment, patients should refrain from engaging in sex to avoid reinfection. Patients who have been diagnosed with rectal gonorrhea should not used penicillin medications since bacterial populations in the rectum produce ? lactamases that destroy penicillin making them ineffective.

In the United States, a third generation cefriaxone is the most recommended antibiotic against gonorrheal infections but due to higher antibiotic resistance in some areas like California and Hawaii the flouroquinones are not recommended fro the empirical treatment of diarrhea. The primary prevention measures are abstinence and the use of barrier methods such as condoms. In addition to these, behavioral interventions also form the most common strategies employed in the prevention of gonorrhea infections. These strategies basically include delaying the sexual debut and reducing sexual activities with several partners.

It is recommended that individuals reduce the behavioral tendency of acquiring new partners while ensuring that condom usage is maintained with the remaining sexual partner. When condoms are used consistently, there is significant reduction in the transmission of gonorrhea. Among females, the polyurethane condom is preferable but it is least effective in preventing gonorrheal transmissions in comparison to the male condom. Apart from this significant ineffectiveness the female polyurethane condom has also faced chronic non compliance and unacceptability among couples (Wilson et al 2001).

Another prevention measure is to ensure that all individuals diagnosed with gonorrheal infections be treated within three months. All sexual contacts of anybody with a diagnosis of gonorrhea should be identified and encouraged to seek treatment. Usually, in most cases doctors advise partners seeking treatment to notify their sexual partners to undergo screening and treatment. Other treatment programs allow a partner to present medication to their partners. These treatment programs describe what is popularly referred to as epidemiologic treatment.

This treatment program can be simply defined as the treatment of patients based on a history of exposure to infection without necessarily confirming the presence of an infection. Apart from behavioral interventions, there are wide arrays of research on the effectiveness of several rectal and vaginal microbicides or antimicrobial gels that can be used by both partners during sexual intercourse to prevent the transmission of these infections. In cases of sexual assault antigonococcal medications are administered even before the possibility of such an infection is confirmed. References Apicella, M.

A. , M. Ketterer, F. K. N. Lee. , Zhou, D. , Rice, P. A. & Blake, M. S. (1996). The pathogenesis of gonococcal urethritis in men: confocal and immunoelectron microscope analysis of urethral exudates from infected men with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Ifect. Dis. 173:636-646 Cimolai, N. (2001). Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Informa Health Care. p. 511-515 Coghlii, D. V. & Young, H. (1987). Serological classification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with monoclonal antibody coagglutination reagents. Genitourin Med. 63:225-32 Crowford, G. , Knapp, S. J. , Hale, J. , & Holmes, K.

K. (1977). Asymptomatic gonorrhea in men: caused by gonococci with unique nutritional requirements. Science. 196: 1352-1353 Gaydos, A. Charlotte & Quinn, C. Thomas. (1998). Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Detection and Typing by Probe Hybridization, LCR, and PCR. In Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Methods and Protocols. By P. Frederick Sparling. Humana Press. p. 15 Harvey, A. R. , Champe, C. P. , Fisher, D. B. , Strohl. (2006). Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology. Lippincott Williams ; Wilkins, 2006. 101-105 Hay, W. W. , Hayward, A. , Levin, J. M. , Sondheimer, M. J. (2002). Curre

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