Vaccination and side effects in Infants

Vaccination is increasingly becoming the common practice in preventing diseases which do not have proper treatment. Vaccines provide the manner in which serious disease such as viral diseases to be managed. The use of antigens to elicit body defense has been used for decades. As children are born, they are at risk of several infections. It is because of this reason that infants receive numerous vaccines and get constant exposures to these vaccines to give them the required protection (Centers for Disease Control, 2009).

These vaccines teach the immune cells how to respond to infections in case it is exposed to such as pathogens of specific diseases. Although vaccines have been used to protect the infants from several infections, it has lately been established that these very vaccines may be a cause of a number of disorders that may be presented almost immediately or during latte stages in the individuals’ rights. The paper will discuss pertinent issues related to vaccination paying close attention to the amount of vaccine used and the frequency of administration Vaccination and side effects in Infants

A vaccine is a medicinal drug that helps in the improvement of immunity to a specific disease in the body. It is a drug that is manufactured by use of microbes that are weakened or even killed. They are made from agents that imitate the antigen properties of the micro-organism that causes the disease. The vaccines work by stimulating the immune system of the body to identify pathogens as foreign, thus destroying it. Vaccines help teach the body’s immune system to be able to recognize and destroy any other micro-organism that the body may be exposed to.

Vaccines have been used frequently by almost every one since they are believed to immunize many diseases. What the users fail to know are the side effects associated with the vaccines and the diseases that they cause later in life (Centers for Disease Control, 2009). Too many vaccines that are offered to patients suffering from various types of diseases have been found to cause more harmful diseases than the ones they are meant to cure or rather immunize. Researchers have discovered that pregnant women who regularly use these vaccines end up affecting the children they give birth to.

Similarly, infants who are given doses of vaccines end up suffering from worse diseases. There is only one way to understand the safety measures of using vaccines. Doctors have the obligation to understand the immune system of a child and how it works before giving the vaccines simply because vaccines affect the body biochemically. Although the protection advantage exists in administering vaccines to children, adverse effects result due to vaccination (Centers for Disease Control, 2009).

For a couple of years now, immunization of children has been associated with a lot of more negative effects than the positive, and therefore it does more harm than good. The most thought of cause of childhood sicknesses is in the risky and efforts that are not effective positively through immunizations (Morihara, 2007). There has been no clear evidence that immunizations bring an end to a disease. Instead, it has been proved that when vaccines are given in more so when given in many doses, brings about childhood diseases.

Most doctors have tried to understand the immune system of children but the effort has not born any fruits. This may be due to the fact that children are not small adults. Despite the fact that understanding the immune system is the only way to successfully give vaccines, many have ignored it and they end up immunizing children, causing more dangerous diseases to them (Centers for Disease Control, 2009). The purpose of this paper is to establish the various dangers that face the children who are being immunized each and every day; the paper tries to identify the side effects that come up after immunizations.

The paper seeks determine and solve the various effects caused by taking too much dosages of vaccines through discussion of the use of vaccines and how the affect the body functioning of an individual. It is a medical paper that discusses the health of an individual on the basis of immunizations (Centers for Disease Control, 2009). The main objective of immunization is to prevent the development of serious illness that may have the capacity to cause disability and even death. With immunization of children, the spread of diseases that are infectious is reduced so much.

Doctors believe through immunizations, more so of children, helps reduce the potentiality of a child to be infected later in life. Some diseases that children are immunized against include polio, smallpox, chicken pox, measles, meningitis, mumps, tetanus and tuberculosis among others. Immunizations are mostly done during the infantry stage before such diseases come into the body (Newson, 2005). Another reason why vaccinations are still rampant is due to the fact that doctors believe that with vaccinations, the children are prevented from being infected with other diseases later in life.

But from the look of the results they get, only smallpox has been known to be immunized and the rest can still find their way into the body of an individual. These diseases are mostly air borne, and as long as the disease exists somewhere in the world, it can still get into the body of another individual despite the fact of the immunization that was done on the individual. It can spread through many other ways into the body of another individual (Jheeta & Newell, 2008). There have been disputes on the effectiveness, safety, ethics and morality of vaccines in the entire world.

At some point the scientific and medical researches has outlined the benefits of vaccinations as they say it helps children from getting infected by infectious diseases. They further support the fact that it outweighs the any effects of immunization. Nevertheless, opponents to that have argued that vaccines do not work and they are dangerous to the body of an individual. The opponents have advised that people should ensure proper sanitation and body cleanliness to help prevent the possibility of infections.

it is further argued that immunizations that are necessary go against the rights of individuals or even the religious principles of the specific people. Due to all these, there has been a controversy of vaccinations and their use in the whole world (Centers for Disease Control, 2009). Immunization programs have been successful simply because they have depended so much on the confidence of the public in their safety. What is clear here is that vaccines have side effects, something that reduces their popularity in a significant way.

If the public loose confidence on a certain vaccine, it would take several year for the vaccine to win back the confidence of the public. The safety of a vaccine is so much regarded and it is the only thing individuals take into consideration before choosing a vaccine. If a certain vaccine is used by an individual and it is announced that it caused a side effects to that individual, it will also loose the public confidence as it would be deemed unsafe for use (Centers for Disease Control, 2009). . However much vaccination has been criticized, it has managed in achieving a lot of effectiveness.

For instance, smallpox is one disease that vaccination has almost wiped out of the human health. Mass vaccination has completely eradicated smallpox from Europe, a disease that was killing one child in every seven children born. Vaccination has helped the whole world in fighting polio, and it is evident that it has achieved that, nowadays the effects of polio that were believed to be so severe have not been heard of as frequent as it used to be. In the United States of America, serious diseases in children have declined by 99 percent.

For instance, bacterial meningitis has significantly reduced with vaccinations (Newson, 2005). Vaccination to be effective, it should be done throughout the locality the disease is suspected to be. For instance, mass vaccination of all United States children has saved several lives, and has prevented a number of infections. Mass vaccinations are advised since it is believed that they manage all pathogens that cause the infections, and reduce the chances of the disease invading the body again, or affecting the children who are not vaccinated (Jheeta & Newell, 2008).

Critics of vaccination have tried to argue that vaccination has not shown any benefit as far as public health is concerned. They argue that all the communicable diseases are caused by conditions that are not fit for human more so children. These conditions include poor sanitation, overcrowding and poor hygiene. Poor diet and lack of clean water are also causes of communicable diseases. They therefore conclude that the diseases can be prevented not necessarily through vaccinations but by correcting the conditions that every one lives, for instance practicing proper hygiene (Centers for Disease Control, 2009).

The critiques emphasize that these vaccines do not offer permanent immunity but temporary immunity that requires constant boosters so as to work well in the prevention of diseases later in life. Medical practitioners have also disputed the fact that vaccines are effective. Such critics believe that once someone has survived a disease, he or she gets natural immunity that is far much better than temporary immunity offered by vaccines (Jheeta & Newell, 2008).

A good example of a disease that can help build natural immunity is diphtheria. A child who suffers from diphtheria and manages to survive from it, the body develops antibodies that will fight the disease out of the body. Later in life, the immune system of such an individual develops natural immunity and any disease caused by the agents that cause diphtheria can not penetrate the body. This natural immunity is very useful to the life of an individual. It is far much preferred than that immunity from vaccines that is temporary.

For diseases like diphtheria, the extra danger to adults that are older and weaker outweighs the benefit of lowering the mortality rate among the general populace (Centers for Disease Control, 2009). Herd immunity is the immunity of the general public that has been immunized from a specific disease. It is the complete vaccination of the entire population to prevent the infection from infecting individuals who were not vaccinated, who will in turn later infect those vaccinated when the immunity weakens. Lack of this complete immunity increases the danger of disease for the whole population simply because it reduces heard immunity.

An instance is the case of vaccination of measles that targets children between the ages of nine and twelve months, and the short window between the time the maternal antibody disappears and the time natural infection occurs. This implies that despite the fact that vaccination has been done on a child, he or she is sill susceptible to be infected when the immunity weakens. Herd immunity reduces the vulnerability when all children have been vaccinated (Centers for Disease Control, 2009). As the saying goes that prevention is better than cure, vaccination is advised on young children.

Vaccination is cost effective and saves many a lot of money with considerations to curing the diseases when they come into the body later in life. Vaccinating a child is very cheap compare to curing an adult from a disease which he or she could have prevented from entering into the body. A controversy arises when critics argue that the same vaccines can cause other diseases as side effects. Curing these diseases is also more expensive hence they dispute the fact that vaccination is cost effective (Morihara, 2007). The safety of vaccination is the major concern of the public.

Investigators of the safety of vaccines have suggested that a condition, that is medically based, of increasing occurrence is one of the adverse effects of vaccination. Studies about the same have methodologies that are not adequate and poor case series. The bone of contention here is whether the dangers of alleged events that follow immunization outweigh the benefits of preventing the effects of common diseases that are adverse. Scientific evidence proves that it is only in rare cases that vaccinations can case adverse events, for instance polio vaccine having the capacity to cause paralysis.

Modern scientific proof does not support the theory of causing of more regular disorders foe instance autism. While the assumption that vaccines are the causes of autism is biologically far-fetched, it would be hectic to determine scientifically whether autism is less common in children who don’t follow vaccine schedules that are recommended by the medical practitioners (Newson, 2005). It is thought that giving too many vaccines to a child, a practice called vaccine overload, causes the weakening of the immune system of the child. The function of giving a child vaccine is to stimulate the immunity and prevent the child from infections.

But when vaccines are given in overdose, the immune system is weakened and the child is prone to other diseases. Overload of vaccines has been believed to cause autism in children though the medical practitioners have neither supported nor contradicted the idea. This has made many parents to stop giving their children vaccines, something that has brought about a controversy between the medical advisors who advocate immunization of all children and the parents of the children as they don’t trust the safety of the vaccines (Morihara, 2007).

The argument of vaccine overload is faulty and this is due to many factors. To start with, it is not true that vaccines devastate the immune system; actually, estimates of the conservatives have predicted that the immune system has the ability to respond to thousands of viruses concurrently. Further still, despite the fact that there is an increase in number of vaccines with time; there is no improvement in the designs of vaccines and this has reduced the immunologic load from vaccines.

Secondly, studies have proven that vaccinations, in fact many vaccinations that are concurrent, do not weaken the body’s immune system nor does it compromise the overall immunity. Lastly, there as been no proof that the immune system plays a role in autism in children. Absence of evidence to support the vaccine overload theory collectively with these deductions that contradict it directly, have led to a conclusion that has suggested that generally, vaccine overload does not at any point weaken the immune system of an individual (Morihara, 2007).

Generally, vaccines have a number of side effects. This probably rises due to a wrong dosage from what is prescribed by a doctor, under dosage or over dosage. Every type of vaccination has its own adverse effects, for instance a vaccination against smallpox can cause pain in the body, redness and swelling, headache, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach ache, chills, sore joints, rashes, swollen glands and many others even including death. These adverse effects if not checked at the right time can cause death.

These side effects are other expenses that an individual has to cover up for. It is the reason why most people have parted with vaccination as it is a case of double standards (Morihara, 2007). In conclusion, vaccination in a general reasoning has had controversies on how it is used, its ethics, morality and even its policies. Some have opposed it, some have supported it, while some who have tried o understand it deeper have neither opposed it nor supported it.

The main basic idea here is to understand the immune system of an individual more so of an infant before ensuring immunization on the individual. Most practitioners have ignored that, and the result has always been adverse effects on the body of an individual. The best way to immunize or rather give a vaccine is to try and understand the immune system of an individual. Reference: Centers for Disease Control (2009). Basic and common questions: possible side-effects from vaccines. CDC. Retrieved May 22nd 2010 from: http://www. cdc. gov/vaccines/vac-gen/side-effects.

htm Jheeta, M & Newell, J. (2008). Childhood vaccination in Africa and Asia: the effects of parents’ knowledge and attitudes. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 86 (6): 419. Morihara, F. (2007). Effects of vaccination by a recombinant antigenureB138 (a segment of the b-subunit of urease) against Helicobacter pylori infection. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 56: 847–853 Newson, S. W. (2005). The history of infection control: Poliomyelitis part 2: 1950-2005 — a disease controlled (almost). British Journal of Infection Control. 6: 14-17

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