The main issue that is being attempted is to see that a good education program is devised which will effectively address the serious social issue of teen pregnancy. In the present study an attempt is made to extend the knowledge that comprehensive education intervention is more effective in preventing teen pregnancy than abstinence-only method and to address the weak links in this issue of teen pregnancy, incorporation of various synthesis techniques are projected. It should be acknowledged that teen pregnancy is an alarming social issue and its cause is deep rooted in the subconscious mind.
Any education program to address this issue must have the potency to influence the deeper subconscious mind because the primary focus is to resolve the inner conflict between free indiscriminate expression of sexual energy and its control for social cause. There are already various methods of sex education available which has been found to be effective at various levels under various situations. Abstinence only method and comprehensive method are two of them which was studied extensively. Tough comprehensive method showed some better results, there are still some deep corners which needs attention.
Role of subconscious mind and its functioning is one of them. A prospective candidate could be subliminal psychodynamic activation (SPA) and subliminal stimuli (Gustafson & Kallmen, 1990) will be used as an intervention and to measure the changes brought out at subconscious level and whose magnitude of change is not available for self report, we can use other powerful technique like Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure their implicit changes in attitude towards various methods of sex education. Albert Ellis (1988) proposed a ABC model.
This model depicts how the stimulus is accepted and processed in our mind. A is the activating agent, B is the belief system that is targeted and influenced, then finally C is the consequence reflected in behavior. Subjects A priori sample size calculation was done by assuming Cohen’s medium effect size of 0. 5 for a t-test since no similar IAT study was done earlier with the same protocol. The sample size was found to be 128 (64 in each group, Abstinence and Comprehensive groups) keeping alpha at 0. 05, power at 0. 80 and using G*Power version 3. 1. 2 software (Faul et al. , 2007).
This priori sample size calculation is to ensure that the sample size calculated is sufficient enough to prove or disprove the chosen null hypothesis. This will be a convenience sampling procedure and subjects will be taken from the universities from age group ranging from 13 to 19 years. They will be given credit waiver for their participation in the research program. The inclusion criteria will be teen aged students in their schools and colleges within the age group of 13 to19 years and full consent to participate in either of the sex education methods training program for duration of three weeks.
Exclusion criteria will be any chronic diseased conditions and recent familiarity with the IAT. Materials The implicit association test (IAT) (Greenwald, et al. , 2002) will be administered to see their implicit attitude towards pregnancy education programs. In the test, there are 20 stimulus words: 5 “good” words, 5 “bad” words, 5 “Abstinence” words and 5 “Comprehensive” words. There are seven blocks. The first block is the practice block in which participants are to quickly discriminate and categorize words into two of the given attribute: good or bad.
First block contains 20 stimuli. Then the second block is similar to the first block but in this they have to discriminate and categorize into given targets namely abstinence and comprehensive. This block is also a practice block. Second block contains 20 stimuli. The third block is again a trial block, in which they have to do the same categorization but here it will be a combined task that means both word related to attribute and target will appear. Third block also contains 20 stimuli.
The fourth block is the first trial block which is exactly similar to the previous block except for number of stimuli which is 40 here. Fifth block consists of reversed target which means the target which appeared in left side in block two will appear in right side in fifth block. It has 20 stimuli and this is a practice block. Sixth block is a combined task block in which consisting of 20 stimuli and with reversed targets. This is also a practice block. Finally, the seventh block is the test block in which there will be 40 stimuli and is a reversed order combined task.
Thus the whole test of IAT is administered. During the whole test, the participants need to respond as quickly as possible without much delay. This is essential in the whole administration of test as this is the element which is claimed to bring out the implicit attitude. The list of stimuli is given in the appendix A. Apparatus Desktop computers will be used to deliver IAT. The monitor will be placed around 60 cms away from the participants. The same system will be used to deliver subliminal stimuli.
To give response, index or middle finger will be used and the key for left response will be “e” and for right, “i”. The participants will be taking the tests and their daily intervention in a quite and well lit isolated cabin. Design The design of the study is pre post assessment of participants on IAT scores. The null hypothesis is there is no influence of subliminal psychodynamic activation on implicit attitude towards two sex education methods namely, abstinence-only and comprehensive approach.
The research hypothesis is that there is increase in implicit attitude towards two sex education methods namely, abstinence-only and comprehensive approach. Hence there are two groups in the study namely, abstinence group and comprehensive group. The duration of intervention is three weeks and the data will be collected before and after the intervention and their change in mean will be analyzed using suitable statistical test. Hence the design of the study is two group pre post assessment. Independent variable is the subliminal stimuli give to the participants and dependent variable is their scores on IAT.
According to the research hypothesis an enhancement in IAT score is expected for each method adopted. This would be the most ideal model for this study because the change in implicit attitude is necessary to be known as the cause lies in the management of deep rooted subconscious feelings of sensual desires. The intervention has the potential to influence subconscious mind. If this study shows significant result, then it could be added as an adjunct to various sex education programs given in schools, colleges and community health centers.