Physical education (often abbreviated Phys. Ed. , P. E. , or PE) or gymnastics (gym or gym class) is an educational course taken during primary and secondary education that encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health. 2. Objectives of PE. * PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Through the carefully selected physical an individual who participates actively will develop and maintain good health and a high level of physical fitness. The acquisitron of physical skills can motivate an individual to participate, further in physical activities hence his growth and development will be enhance.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Participation in the physical education activities provides opportunities for the development of desirable social traits needed for adjustment to the social life in general. Some worth while traits are friendliness, cooperation, respect for the rights of others, good sports worship, honesty in group competition * EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT The informal nature of physical education activity offers opportunities for self-expression and emotional mastery. example of traits are: self confidence, self control, self- reliance, courage, determination. * MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
Through participation in physical education activities the individual develops his mental capacities as he learns the mechanical principles underlying movement, as he acquired knowledge and understanding of rules and strategies of games and sports, and as he discovers ways of improving his movements in gymnastics and dance. 3. Brief history of PE. If several hundred years from now archaeologist were investigating our society, they would find endless examples of sport in the United States: stadiums, swimming pools, running shoes, hockey sticks, skis, baseball gloves, posters of sports stars, etc.
Even today a basic survey of our country would reveal sports and physical education everywhere: Little League baseball, Physical Education classes, Special Olympics, neighborhood basketball, jogging, and televised professional sports. Various forms of sport and physical education have been around since the late 1400’s and have only gained momentum and recognition in the centuries that followed. One of the first men to recognize the importance of physical activity in school curriculum was Johann Bernard Basedow in Germany.
He included gymnastics as part of the daily curriculum devoting up to three hours per day to educating through the physical. Basedow required a specific uniform for his students so they could have unrestricted movement. He also offered a camp for two months during the summer for his students. In 1810 Friedrich Jahn, “the father of gymnastics”, began working outdoors with his students using simple exercises and games sometimes taking long hikes. The thing that motivated Jahn to develop a system of physical training was his deep sense of patriotism. Germany had been soundly defeated in the Napoleonic wars.
So, he developed his system with the hopes of creating strong, sturdy and fearless youth who would help secure Germany’s freedom and could defend the Fatherland from outside forces. Charles Beck who was a student, friend and follower of Friedrich Jahn teamed up with a friend and they made their way to Switzerland, France and eventually America. George Bancroft who had opened the Round Hill School in America had been looking at and studying the German system and immediately hired Beck to teach Latin and Physical Education in the form of German gymnastics.
So, Beck became the first official Physical Education teacher in America in 1825. Historical Timeline (1800’s) 776 BC: First ancient Olympiad is held 1814 Denmark’s Bill of 1814 establishes first ever mandatory physical education 1823 Catherine Beecher founds Hartford seminary for girls with American Style Calisthenics (early form of aerobics) 1823 Round Hill School Opens 1825 Charles Beck becomes first Physical Education Teacher at Round Hill School. 1861 The Normal Institute of Physical Education is founded in Boston.
1866 California becomes first state to pass Physical Education legislation 1891 James Naismith invents Basketball 1896 First Modern Olympics is held in Athens, Greece 4. Values of PE. PE also helps students learn about their abilities, aptitudes, limitations, and potential. It provides opportunities for students to: develop creativity, positive attitudes toward physical activity, assume more personal and social responsibility, and meet performance obligations as individuals and in groups. 5. Legal Basis of PE. Article 14 section 19 of the Philippine Constitution
1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs, league competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. (2) All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors. 6. Health Benefits of PE. Physical education programs in schools directly benefit students’ physical health.
Getting the recommended amount of exercise combats obesity, which subsequently reduces the risk for diabetes, heart disease, asthma, sleep disorders and other illnesses. Regular exercise also contributes to cardiovascular health and promotes muscle and bone development. According to the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, school PE programs should require both fitness and cognitive assessments. In addition to participating in physical activity, students in PE learn the fundamentals of a healthful lifestyle, the building blocks upon which they can develop into healthy, knowledgeable adults.
7. 4 types of development. * Physical development is the obvious type of development within a PE lesson. Physical exercise is a very important part of life to keep us fit and healthy into our old age. If physical activities are incorporated into the lives of people from a young age, it is much more likely they will carry it on when they get older. People need to develop physically by developing muscles, by toning and strengthening them and also develop cardiovascular fitness for healthy heart and lungs. * Socially, physical education helps people develop bonds with others; particularly whilst participating in team sports.
The act of working together as part of a team and using team mates as a support network both on and off the field helps people develop socially and form friendships with like-minded individuals. * Emotionally and mentally, physical education can be a form of therapy for individuals. Using up unused energy can help release stress and tension. The sense of achievement after completing a physical education session can also boost self esteem; particularly after performing well in competitions or simply reaching a personal goal.